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DuckyChannel Frequently Asked Questions

Welcome to DuckyChannel's Reddit FAQ

Hi hi hello, quick preface on what is going on;
Firstly, I do not work for Ducky. I just happen to be a huge fangirl who's been running their Discord and this sub for ~2 years so I'm here spreading my knowledge the best I can. I may be missing some information. I will add it as I discover and learn more.


  • Support wanted - For users asking questions about the product. Such as functionality, macros, compatibility etc. Not used for Discussion type posts!
  • Solved - For when you have gotten an answefix to your question.
  • Discussion - For when you are asking information. Such as vendor information, keycap information etc. Not the same as Support Wanted!
  • Answered by FAQ/manual - This is applied when you, or I have seen the post is answered by this very FAQ, or the manual.
  • Photo - Photos!
  • Announcement - Mod only flair. It is used for Ducky announcements.
  • Product Release - Mod only flair. It is used for the release of a product to help spread authentic information.

List of questions/information in this FAQ.

Vendor information:
  • Where can I buy Ducky products?
  • When does said keyboard release?
  • When does said keyboard come in stock?
  • When will my keyboard ship?
  • What counts for warranty/returns?
  • How does warranty work?
  • I didn't get a Zodiac spacebar with my keyboard.
  • What Zodiac spacebar will I get?
  • When is the next Zodiac?
General things:
  • My keyboard did not come with a manual.
  • Is my keyboard real or fake?
  • What are Ducky keyboards compatible with?
  • My LED is not working properly?
  • (Miya Pro's)My F row wont work / my number row wont work?
  • I cannot type special characters needed for my language?
  • What is “keychatter”, and how can I fix it?
  • How do I reset my keyboard?
  • My WASD and Arrow Keys (IJKL) are lit up, how do I fix this?
  • My keyboard is switching RGB profiles without me doing anything?
  • Keyboard stays on after pc is turned off?
  • Can I toggle FN key?
  • Spilled liquid on my keyboard! help!
  • How do I install firmware?
  • After installing firmware, my keyboard no longer works.
  • How do I use Multi Mode?
  • Which keyboards have software?
  • How do I make Macros?
  • How do I use Time and Input Implementation?
  • Does my Ducky have media keys?
  • All Current Keycap Sets.
  • What keycap layout does Ducky use for their keyboards?
  • What Languages does Ducky offer on the keycaps?
  • Does my keyboard come with ABS or PBT keycaps?
  • My keycaps have black marks underneath them / my keycaps aren't shining through properly.
  • Whats the difference between ABS and PBT?
  • Zodiac Keycaps
Awesome, now you can copy paste these titles using ctrl+f then ctrl+v and you can find your answer quickly!

Vendor information:

Where can I buy Ducky products?
Ducky has an Official Vendor List where all their products can be bought. Please, only ever buy from this list to ensure your warranty and an authentic product.
When does said keyboard release?
Products are released when they are ready. Ducky's social media often teases sample products, some do and some don't go into production. It is always best to ask your vendor to stock the product if you want it. There will also be post's under the "Product Release" flair to help you out.
When does said keyboard come in stock?
There is no "one answer for all" for this question. Your keyboard will come in stock when/if your vendor gets it. If your vendor does not order the product - Ducky does not make it.
Some vendors display their "Incoming Stock" like MK here, it is always best to keep in touch with your vendor to know when they get their shipment.
When will my product ship?
This is entirely up to your vendor and shipping service.
The product will ship as soon as it hits the vendors warehouse. From there, it depends on the shipping options you choose.
What counts for warranty/returns?
Ducky Warranty covers everything caused by the factory for 1 year after purchase. The keyboard arriving damaged, broken USB ports, switches, cases, keycaps etc.
User error voids all warranty. This includes liquid spills, misuse of the keyboard, modifications, damage sustained by the user. For a more detailed explanation on what is a user error, refer to the website.
To return or get warranty on your keyboard, you must have everything it came with included and the PURCHASE RECEIPT. This means all original keycaps, spacebars, switch puller, extra keycaps and the cable. And you must have purchased from an Official Vendor.
How does warranty work?
Works just like most stores!
Warranty is 1 year from date of purchase from an Official Vendor.
You must have the purchase receipt to claim this warranty.
You return the product to the store you bought it from. Refunds, repairs and replacements strictly go through the store you bought it from. Just like Phones!
If you have bought from an un-official vendor, then Ducky cannot help you. There is a high chance the keyboard is fake. Even if it is not, you still must have purchased from an Official Vendor as they handle all replacements, repairs and refunds.


I didn't get a Zodiac spacebar with my keyboard.
Not every model gets a zodiac spacebar. The only models that do are:
  • One 2 RGB black/white
  • One 2 TKL RGB black/white
  • One 2 SF RGB black/white
  • One 2 Mini RGB black/white
  • Mecha Mini RGB
  • Razer x Ducky One 2 RGB
  • HyperX x Ducky One 2 Mini
Coloured models such as Tuxedo, Frozen Llama etc do not get Zodiac spacebars.
Ducky does not sell their Zodiac spacebars separately. They are all included in your purchase if it qualifies along with your 10pc extra keycaps. Coloured models 10pc extra's are often a set colour. They are not random.
If you have an eligable model and did not get a spacebar, search the entire box, then ask your vendor for a spacebar. If your vendor does not have a spare for you, ask Ducky.
What Zodiac spacebar will I get?
It goes by the current year. This year every eligable model will get Year of the Rat v2 spacebar. (Scroll down to see pictures)
When is the next Zodiac?
Rat (2020) is the last Zodiac in Ducky's cycle. Currently, it is unlikely they will re-run these Zodiacs.

General things:

My keyboard did not come with a manual.
As of February 2020, Ducky has moved on from paper manuals (except for the Zodiac keyboards) for all, if not most models. Every keyboard will come with a warranty card with a QR code that leads you to the online manual. Otherwise, look for the manual on Ducky's Website. Find your keyboard on the product page, go to its page and down the bottom you will find the download for the manual.
Is my keyboard real or fake?
Please check this thread for details on Aunthentic vs Fake and Akko X Ducky.
What are Ducky keyboards compatible with?
  • Windows: Full.
  • Linux: Not designed for.
  • Console: Not designed for.
  • MacOS: Limited.
- Ducky One 2 Fullsize and TKL models are compatible with MacOS.
- Ducky One 2 Mini, Mecha and SF are not designed for MacOS, however you can update their firmware to help them become compatible. But it is not full compatibility.
  • 1861ST = v1.22
  • 2061ST = v1.07
  • 1967ST = v1.09
(Follow firmware guide for this, don't be dumb and install the wrong version)


My LED is not working properly?
(If you have damaged the keyboard in any way, such as liquid spills, punching it, power surges etc, you have NO warranty)
This could be from a lot of things.
If it is one LED, lets say our "H" key has no RED showing. That means the red part of that LED has died. This is covered under the 1 year warranty. Firmware generally will not fix this, so you should contact the vendor straight away.
If it is a row of LEDs, 5tgv or asdfgh for example, that means its likely a resistor that has failed. This is also covered under warranty and you should contact your vendor immediately.
If your keyboard is showing no blue (for example) at all, it means part of the LED controller has failed.
You can get warranty on this too. However, this generally only happens when there has been damage to the keyboard. Make sure there has been no damage, then talk to your vendor about RMA procedures.
My F row wont work / my number row wont work?
FN+PGup = Number row activated
FN+PGdn = F row activated.
I cannot type special characters needed for my language?
You need to change the language settings in your computers operating system to the language you want.
What is “keychatter”, and how can I fix it?
Keychatter is when a key registers multiple times. (likke thiss.) This can be caused by many things:
  • unclean keyboard
  • dust and debris inside the switch
  • manufacturing issues by Cherry
  • humidity
Take these steps to relieve it:
  1. Clean out the affected switches with compressed air
  2. Update the firmware (please follow the firmware guide for this)
  3. RMA the product with your vendor. Ask them to replace the affected switches or replace the product as a whole.
How do I reset my keyboard?
You can reset your keyboard by holding down both windows keys until it flashes. This will often fix most issues with functions and LEDs. This also will erase your macro, led and custom profiles.
Keyboard doesn't have 2 windows keys? Look at your manual. They are all online.
My WASD and Arrow Keys (IJKL) are lit up, how do I fix this?
These are CM1 (wasd) and CM2 (arrows/ijkl) deactivate it using:
One 2 Mini, Mecha, SF
One 2 TKL, Fullsize, Shine 7
  • FN+F11 (WASD/CM1)
  • FN+F12 (ARROWS/CM2)
My keyboard is switching RGB profiles without me doing anything?
DIP switch 4 on SF and 2061ST 60% models activates Display Mode.
Turn off DIP switch 4, unplug and replug the keyboard.
Keyboard stays on after pc is turned off?
This is common on keyboards, not just Ducky. Here's some ways to help:
  • Using CM1/2 to set a blank profile you can put on when your shut down your pc.
  • Holding FN+ALT+T for 3 seconds to turn off all backlighting.
  • Going into your Motherboard BIOS and disabling “night light” to “deep sleep” OR disabling certain USB ports after shutdown.
  • Updating your motherboard firmware.
  • Updating the firmware on the keyboard.
Can I toggle FN key?
On 2061ST 60% models, yes.
Hold FN for 5 seconds to toggle it on/off.


Spilled liquid on my keyboard! help!
Oh no! You spilled liquid on your keyboard. Heres a quick guide on what to do:
For small spills (1/4 of a glass)
1. Do not activate any switches. Unplug the keyboard immediately.
2. Take off all keycaps
3. Use a paper towel, tissue etc to clean up any liquid
4. Flip upside down, let it try for 2 days.
5. Check for any sticky areas, isopropyl alcohol can clean away these areas.

For medium spills (1/2 of a glass) to large spills (whole glass)
1. Do not activate any switches. Unplug the keyboard immediately.
2. Take off all keycaps
3. Disassemble keyboard
4. Let dry for 2-3 days.
5. Check for any sticky areas, isopropyl alcohol can clean away these. Switches that are sticky internally, you may need to replace. At this point, desoldering a water damaged product is risky so this is entirely up to you.
Please note, your keyboard no longer has warranty due to the spill. Vendors are allowed to reject your repair request (even if its a paid repair) due to the liquid spill. After all of this, we wish you the best!


How do I install firmware?
This firmware guide is for the 60% and 65% series.
Please check the below links for the correct firmware for WHITE LED and RGB models.
Installing the wrong firmware can lead to the keyboard not working and is classed as USER ERROR, not covered under warranty
DKON1861ST (One 2 Mini RGB) 1.22
DKON1961ST (One 2 Mini RGB) 1.22
DKME1961ST (Mecha Mini RGB) 1.22
DKON1861S / DKON1861 (One 2 Mini White LED) 1.10
DKME2061ST / DKON2061ST (2020 Mecha, Mini, HyperX x Ducky) 1.09
DKON1967ST (One 2 SF) 1.07

How to install:
(2061ST and SF models please scroll down):
  1. Download the firmware from Ducky's website (do not open it yet)
  2. Unplug your keyboard
  3. Open the firmware update (only open, dont start it)
  4. Hold "D" and "L" while plugging your keyboard back in
  5. Click "OK" to start the firmware update. You can now release D and L Do not unplug your keyboard. Do not shutdown your PC.
  6. Once the firmware has successfully updated, close the firmware updater.
  7. Unplug your keyboard and wait 10 seconds. Now you can plug it back in.
  8. If that is too confusing, watch MK's tutorial on installing firmware here.
Please note: After the firmware has updated, your keyboard will not work until it has been unplugged and replugged.
If the firmware has failed, please try to update a few more times. Then try this link.
If "OK" is not lit up upon updating the firmware, you are already on the latest version.
  • 2061ST models only require the D key held to update. Yes the updater says to hold both D keys. English isn’t the engineers’ strong suit.
This firmware guide is for the One 2 TKL and Fullsize
  1. Have the software installed.
  1. Upon starting the software, you may be prompted to install a newer firmware version.
  2. Click "OK". Do not unplug your keyboard. Do not shutdown your PC.
  3. Now its done!
Please note for TKL: If the firmware is failing to update, and you are on software 1.31 try using software 1.30 in this Google Drive
  • This has solved Spanish layout TKL not updating from 1.31 software.
If the software fails to install the firmware, or you have backrolled firmware (it may show 0.00.0) you can:
  • Install new firmware again via the software
  • Install new firmware again via the software, but hold D and L while you do this.

After installing firmware, my keyboard no longer works.
After a successful firmware update, the keyboard will not work until it has been unplugged and replugged.
Make sure you have used the correct firmware, installing the wrong one can cause issues.
If you unplugged the keyboard or shut off your pc during the update, that is completely user fault. Even if it was "accidental" it is user error. The only way to salvage is to reinstall the firmware, if you can.


How do I use Multi Mode?
To use multi mode, you will need to add it to your LED profiles list via the software.
Once you have it added you can select the LED profile you wish to use. Then select the keys you want to have on this LED profile.
For example, I will put reactive mode on my Alpha keys. Breathing on my Modifier keys, and they will function at the same time.
Which keyboards have software?
Shine 6
Year of the Rooster
One 2 RGB
Shine 7
Year of the Dog
60% and 65% models are WIP last I heard.


How do I make Macros?
While everything is in the manual, it can be confusing or daunting to people who have never recorded macros before.

This guide is using Mini and SF combinations. Please use FN+CTRL for TKL and Fullsize models.

  1. Select a macro profile. These are FN+ALT+2~6
  2. Hold FN+ALT+TAB for 3 seconds. (It will flash to indicate it is in macro recording mode)
  3. Select the desired key to have the macro set on. It will shine green for RGB keyboards. For single LED it will light up. For no LED it will not light up.
  4. Implement the desired combination.
  5. Press FN+ALT+TAB to stop the recording.
  6. Press FN+ALT+TAB to exit out of macro recording mode.

  • Here is an example. I want to set Play/Pause on 4. This combination is on Page 45 of the manual.
  1. Select a macro profile. These are FN+ALT+2~6
  2. Hold FN+ALT+TAB for 3 seconds.
  3. Select the 4 key.
  4. Press FN+WIN+D
  5. Press FN+ALT+TAB to stop the recording.
  6. Press FN+ALT+TAB to exit out of macro recording mode.
Now 4 outputs Play/Pause

  • What if I want Page Up on P?
  1. Select a macro profile. These are FN+ALT+2~6
  2. Hold FN+ALT+TAB for 3 seconds.
  3. Select the P key.
  4. Press FN+P (FN+P = Page Up)
  5. Press FN+ALT+TAB to stop the recording.
  6. Press FN+ALT+TAB to exit out of macro recording mode.
Now P = Page Up!
  • Keys lit up red already have a macro
  • Do not try to record the macro twice before ending the recording. It will mess it up
  • To get rid of an existing macro, simply press it in macro recording mode. For example, I want to get rid of my Play/Pause macro on 4. I will see that 4 is lit up red, so I will click it to delete it.
  • You must be on profiles 2~6 to record a macro
  • Certain keys cannot be assigned a macro. Please look at your manual for these keys.

How do I use Time and Input Implementation?
  1. Select a macro profile. These are FN+2~6
  2. Hold FN+CTRL for 3 seconds. (It will flash to indicate it is in macro recording mode)
  3. Select the desired key to have the macro set on. It will shine green for RGB keyboards. For single LED it will light up. For no LED it will not light up.
  4. Select Time Implementation (FN+1-6)
  5. Implement the desired combination.
  6. Select the Input Method (FN+Q/W/E)
  7. Press FN+CTRL to stop the recording.
  • You do not have to use both methods. They just need to be used in the correct spot.
  • Always input the time implementation after every keystroke in the macro. *You do not need to do this for media key macros,

Does my Ducky have media keys?
Yes. FN+Windows+A to X are your media keys. These are all shown in your user manual.
Ducky fullsize have volume controls above numpad.
Ducky TKL have volume controls on FN+Windows+ A/B/C
Ducky Mini have volume controls on fn+m,< and > keys.


All Current Keycap Sets.
Skyline - ANSI-US, ISO-DE
Horizon - ANSI-US, ISO-DE
Tfue - ANSI-US
Lilac - ANSI-US (keyboard also EOL)
Cotton Candy - ANSI-US
Horizon SA Version - ANSI-US
Good in Blue - ANSI-US
Joker - ANSI-US
Ultra Violet - ANSI-US, ISO-UK
Frozen Llama - ANSI-US, ISO-UK
Pudding - ANSI-US
Bon Voyage - ANSI-US
Chocolate - ANSI-US
White and Grey dyesub - ANSI-US
Midnight - ANSI-US (Keyboard also EOL)

SF Compatibility:
Cotton Candy

SA profile:
Cotton Candy
Horizon SA Version

No Italics = In production
Italics = out of production

What keycap layout does Ducky use for their keyboards?
They use a completely standard keycap layout. This means every keycap set (unless specified otherwise) will fit it.
To get into the specifics, here’s their sizes:
ENTER: 2.25u
TAB and PIPE: 1.5u
The One 2 SF is the only Ducky keyboard with a non-standard layout. Here’s the changes:
RIGHT ALT and FN: 1u (both CTRL are 1.25u)
Currently, the only Ducky keycap set that will fit this is the Tfue keycap set and Cotton Candy. Other manufacturers offer sets that fit this. The Ducky Discord can help you with this if you need it.
Ducky uses doubleshot PBT OEM keycaps unless stated otherwise. All black and white zodiac spacebars are laser etched ABS. Coloured zodiac spacebars (red pig, blue dog) are dyesub PBT
What Languages does Ducky offer on the keycaps?
  • ANSI-US (American English)
  • ANSI-KO (American Korean)
  • ANSI-TW (American Chinese/zhuyin)
  • ANSI-RU (American Russian)
  • ANSI-AR (American Arabic)
  • ANSI-TH (American Thai)
  • ISO-NORD (Nordic)
  • ISO-UK (British English)
  • ISO-FAZERTY (French)
  • ISO-DE (German)
  • ISO-CH (Swiss)
  • ISO-BE (Belgian)
  • ISO-BR (Brazilian)
  • ISO-SE (Spanish)
  • ISO-TK (Turkish)
  • ISO-CR (Slovenian)
  • ISO-IS (Icelandic)
  • ISO-HU (Hungarian)
Does my keyboard come with ABS or PBT keycaps?
All layouts (I know of) apart from what's listed below are PBT.
Some keyboards such as Skyline, Horizon may come with PBT pad printed legends. Please check the product description before buying.
  • ISO-CH
  • ISO-BE
  • ISO-BR
  • ISO-SE
  • ISO-TK
  • ISO-CR
  • ISO-IS
  • ISO-HU
My keycaps have black marks underneath them / my keycaps aren't shining through properly.
This is the result of the injecting methods to create the seamless font. It happens randomly, and it is hard to avoid. It does not count for warranty. If you don't like it, get laser etched ABS or dyesub PBT keycaps.
You cannot see these imperfections on non-backlit sets. But they are still there. Keycap makers such as TaiHao, GMK, Ducky, Razer, any doubleshot keycap maker will have some form of this "issue".
Ducky Keycap
TaiHao Keycap
GMK Keycap
Whats the difference between ABS and PBT?
Short version:
ABS is shiny, easy to work with and vibrant. It is generally used for laser etched keycaps.
PBT is matte, not easy to work with, and is usually duller. It is generally used for dyesub and doubleshot keycaps.
Zodiac Keycaps
All Black and White spacebars are made out of ABS plastic, and are laser etched. These spacebars will appear on most models of keyboards. They were not limited, though some are rarer than others. They were produced in their respective years.
Coloured spacebars like Dog, Pig and Rat are all dyesubbed and only appear on the Zodiac Keyboard.
Zodiacs Ox, Rabbit, Tiger and Dragon have keyboards, but no spacebars. As Ducky did not have the technology to make these effects at the time.
Ducky includes "Year of the ____" Zodiac keycaps that fit on the same row as ESC key. These will come in different colours, so the pictures shown are not guaranteed what you will get.

Year of the Rat V1 / Chinese New Year
Year of the Rat V2 / Skateboard Rat
Year of the Rat Keyboard Edition (2,020 pcs) Dyesub
Year of the Rat Character Keycap
Year of the Pig
Year of the Pig Keyboard Edition (2,019 pcs) Dyesub
Year of the Pig Character Keycap
Year of the Dog
Year of the Dog Keyboard Edition (2,018 pcs) Dyesub
Year of the Dog Character Keycap
Year of the Rooster
Year of the Rooster Character Keycap
Year of the Monkey
Year of the Goat
Year of the Horse
Year of the Snake
submitted by Zero22One to DuckyKeyboard

The fallacy of ‘synthetic benchmarks’


Apple's M1 has caused a lot of people to start talking about and questioning the value of synthetic benchmarks, as well other (often indirect or badly controlled) information we have about the chip and its predecessors.
I recently got in a Twitter argument with Hardware Unboxed about this very topic, and given it was Twitter you can imagine why I feel I didn't do a great job explaining my point. This is a genuinely interesting topic with quite a lot of nuance, and the answer is neither ‘Geekbench bad’ nor ‘Geekbench good’.
Note that people have M1s in hand now, so this isn't a post about the M1 per se (you'll have whatever metric you want soon enough), it's just using this announcement to talk about the relative qualities of benchmarks, in the context of that discussion.

What makes a benchmark good?

A benchmark is a measure of a system, the purpose of which is to correlate reliably with actual or perceived performance. That's it. Any benchmark which correlates well is Good. Any benchmark that doesn't is Bad.
There a common conception that ‘real world’ benchmarks are Good and ‘synthetic’ benchmarks are Bad. While there is certainly a grain of truth to this, as a general rule it is wrong. In many aspects, as we'll discuss, the dividing line between ‘real world’ and ‘synthetic’ is entirely illusionary, and good synthetic benchmarks are specifically designed to tease out precisely those factors that correlate with general performance, whereas naïve benchmarking can produce misleading or unrepresentative results even if you are only benchmarking real programs. Most synthetic benchmarks even include what are traditionally considered real-world workloads, like SPEC 2017 including the time it takes for Blender to render a scene.
As an extreme example, large file copies are a real-world test, but a ‘real world’ benchmark that consists only of file copies would tell you almost nothing general about CPU performance. Alternatively, a company might know that 90% of their cycles are in a specific 100-line software routine; testing that routine in isolation would be a synthetic test, but it would correlate almost perfectly for them with actual performance.
On the other hand, it is absolutely true there are well-known and less-well-known issues with many major synthetic benchmarks.

Boost vs. sustained performance

Lots of people seem to harbour misunderstandings about instantaneous versus sustained performance.
Short workloads capture instantaneous performance, where the CPU has opportunity to boost up to frequencies higher than the cooling can sustain. This is a measure of peak performance or burst performance, and affected by boost clocks. In this regime you are measuring the CPU at the absolute fastest it is able to run.
Peak performance is important for making computers feel ‘snappy’. When you click an element or open a web page, the workload takes place over a few seconds or less, and the higher the peak performance, the faster the response.
Long workloads capture sustained performance, where the CPU is limited by the ability of the cooling to extract and remove the heat that it is generating. Almost all the power a CPU uses ends up as heat, so the cooling determines an almost completely fixed power limit. Given a sustained load, and two CPUs using the same cooling, where both of which are hitting the power limit defined by the quality of the cooling, you are measuring performance per watt at that wattage.
Sustained performance is important for demanding tasks like video games, rendering, or compilation, where the computer is busy over long periods of time.
Consider two imaginary CPUs, let's call them Biggun and Littlun, you might have Biggun faster than Littlun in short workloads, because Biggun has a higher peak performance, but then Littlun might be faster in sustained performance, because Littlun has better performance per watt. Remember, though, that performance per watt is a curve, and peak power draw also varies by CPU. Maybe Littlun uses only 1 Watt and Biggun uses 100 Watt, so Biggun still wins at 10 Watts of sustained power draw, or maybe Littlun can boost all the way up to 10 Watts, but is especially inefficient when doing so.
In general, architectures designed for lower base power draw (eg. most Arm CPUs) do better under power-limited scenarios, and therefore do relatively better on sustained performance than they do on short workloads.

On the Good and Bad of SPEC

SPEC is an ‘industry standard’ benchmark. If you're anything like me, you'll notice pretty quickly that this term fits both the ‘good’ and the ‘bad’. On the good, SPEC is an attempt to satisfy a number of major stakeholders, who have a vested interest in a benchmark that is something they, and researchers generally, can optimized towards. The selection of benchmarks was not arbitrary, and the variety captures a lot of interesting and relevant facets of program execution. Industry still uses the benchmark (and not just for marketing!), as does a lot of unaffiliated research. As such, SPEC has also been well studied.
SPEC includes many real programs, run over extended periods of time. For example, 400.perlbench runs multiple real Perl programs, 401.bzip2 runs a very popular compression and decompression program, 403.gcc tests compilation speed with a very popular compiler, and 464.h264ref tests a video encoder. Despite being somewhat aged and a bit light, the performance characteristics are roughly consistent with the updated SPEC2017, so it is not generally valid to call the results irrelevant from age, which is a common criticism.
One major catch from SPEC is that official benchmarks often play shenanigans, as compilers have found ways, often very much targeted towards gaming the benchmark, to compile the programs in a way that makes execution significantly easier, at times even because of improperly written programs. 462.libquantum is a particularly broken benchmark. Fortunately, this behaviour can be controlled for, and it does not particularly endanger results from AnandTech, though one should be on the lookout for anomalous jumps in single benchmarks.
A more concerning catch, in this circumstance, is that some benchmarks are very specific, with most of their runtime in very small loops. The paper Performance Characterization of SPEC CPU2006 Integer Benchmarks on x86-64 Architecture (as one of many) goes over some of these in section IV. For example, most of the time in 456.hmmer is in one function, and 464.h264ref's hottest loop contains many repetitions of the same line. While, certainly, a lot of code contains hot loops, the performance characteristics of those loops is rarely precisely the same as for those in some of the SPEC 2006 benchmarks. A good benchmark should aim for general validity, not specific hotspots, which are liable to be overtuned.
SPEC2006 includes a lot of workloads that make more sense for supercomputers than personal computers, such as including lots of Fortran code and many simulation programs. Because of this, I largely ignore the SPEC floating point; there are users for whom it may be relevant, but not me, and probably not you. As another example, SPECfp2006 includes the old rendering program POV-Ray, which is no longer particularly relevant. The integer benchmarks are not immune to this overspecificity; 473.astar is a fairly dated program, IMO. Particularly unfortunate is that many of these workloads are now unrealistically small, and so can almost fit in some of the larger caches.
SPEC2017 makes the great decision to add Blender, as well as updating several other programs to more relevant modern variants. Again, the two benchmarks still roughly coincide with each other, so SPEC2006 should not be altogether dismissed, but SPEC2017 is certainly better.
Because SPEC benchmarks include disaggregated scores (as in, scores for individual sub-benchmarks), it is easy to check which scores are favourable. For SPEC2006, I am particularly favourable to 403.gcc, with some appreciation also for 400.perlbench. The M1 results are largely consistent across the board; 456.hmmer is the exception, but the commentary discusses that quirk.

(and the multicore metric)

SPEC has a ‘multicore’ variant, which literally just runs many copies of the single-core test in parallel. How workloads scale to multiple cores is highly test-dependent, and depends a lot on locks, context switching, and cross-core communication, so SPEC's multi-core score should only be taken as a test of how much the chip throttles down in multicore workloads, rather than a true test of multicore performance. However, a test like this can still be useful for some datacentres, where every core is in fact running independently.
I don't recall AnandTech ever using multicore SPEC for anything, so it's not particularly relevant. whups

On the Good and Bad of Geekbench

Geekbench does some things debatably, some things fairly well, and some things awfully. Let's start with the bad.
To produce the aggregate scores (the final score at the end), Geekbench does a geometric mean of each of the two benchmark groups, integer and FP, and then does a weighted arithmetic mean of the crypto score with the integer and FP geometric means, with weights 0.05, 0.65, and 0.30. This is mathematical nonsense, and has some really bad ramifications, like hugely exaggerating the weight of the crypto benchmark.
Secondly, the crypto benchmark is garbage. I don't always agree with his rants, but Linus Torvald's rant is spot on here: https://www.realworldtech.com/forum/?threadid=196293&curpostid=196506. It matters that CPUs offer AES acceleration, but not whether it's X% faster than someone else's, and this benchmark ignores that Apple has dedicated hardware for IO, which handles crypto anyway. This benchmark is mostly useless, but can be weighted extremely high due to the score aggregation issue.
Consider the effect on these two benchmarks. They are not carefully chosen to be perfectly representative of their classes.
M1 vs 5900X: single core score 1742 vs 1752
Note that the M1 has crypto/int/fp subscores of 2777/1591/1895, and the 5900X has subscores of 4219/1493/1903. That's a different picture! The M1 actually looks ahead in general integer workloads, and about par in floating point! If you use a mathematically valid geometric mean (a harmonic mean would also be appropriate for crypto), you get scores of 1724 and 1691; now the M1 is better. If you remove crypto altogether, you get scores of 1681 and 1612, a solid 4% lead for the M1.
Unfortunately, many of the workloads beyond just AES are pretty questionable, as many are unnaturally simple. It's also hard to characterize what they do well; the SQLite benchmark could be really good, if it was following realistic usage patterns, but I don't think it is. Lots of workloads, like the ray tracing one, are good ideas, but the execution doesn't match what you'd expect of real programs that do that work.
Note that this is not a criticism of benchmark intensity or length. Geekbench makes a reasonable choice to only benchmark peak performance, by only running quick workloads, with gaps between each bench. This makes sense if you're interested in the performance of the chip, independent of cooling. This is likely why the fanless Macbook Air performs about the same as the 13" Macbook Pro with a fan. Peak performance is just a different measure, not more or less ‘correct’ than sustained.
On the good side, Geekbench contains some very sensible workloads, like LZMA compression, JPEG compression, HTML5 parsing, PDF rendering, and compilation with Clang. Because it's a benchmark over a good breadth of programs, many of which are realistic workloads, it tends to capture many of the underlying facets of performance in spite of its flaws. This means it correlates will with, eg., SPEC 2017, even though SPEC 2017 is a sustained benchmark including big ‘real world’ programs like Blender.
To make things even better, Geekbench is disaggregated, so you can get past the bad score aggregation and questionable benchmarks just by looking at the disaggregated scores. In the comparison before, if you scroll down you can see individual scores. M1 wins the majority, including Clang and Ray Tracing, but loses some others like LZMA and JPEG compression. This is what you'd expect given the M1 has the advantage of better speculation (eg. larger ROB) whereas the 5900X has a faster clock.

(and under Rosetta)

We also have Geekbench scores under Rosetta. There, one needs to take a little more caution, because translation can sometimes behave worse on larger programs, due to certain inefficiencies, or better when certain APIs are used, or worse if the benchmark includes certain routines (like machine learning) that are hard to translate well. However, I imagine the impact is relatively small overall, given Rosetta uses ahead-of-time translation.

(and the multicore metric)

Geekbench doesn't clarify this much, so I can't say much about this. I don't give it much attention.

(and the GPU compute tests)

GPU benchmarks are hugely dependent on APIs and OSs, to a degree much larger than for CPUs. Geekbench's GPU scores don't have the mathematical error that the CPU benchmarks do, but that doesn't mean it's easy to compare them. This is especially true given there are only a very limited selection of GPUs with 1st party support on iOS.
None of the GPU benchmarks strike me as particularly good, in the way that benchmarking Clang is easily considered good. Generally, I don't think you should have much stock in Geekbench GPU.

On the Good and Bad of microarchitectural measures

AnandTech's article includes some of Andrei's traditional microarchitectural measures, as well as some new ones I helped introduce. Microarchitecture is a bit of an odd point here, in that if you understand how CPUs work well enough, then they can tell you quite a lot about how the CPU will perform, and in what circumstances it will do well. For example, Apple's large ROB but lower clock speed is good for programs with a lot of latent but hard to reach parallelism, but would fair less well on loops with a single critical path of back-to-back instructions. Andrei has also provided branch prediction numbers for the A12, and again this is useful and interesting for a rough idea.
However, naturally this cannot tell you performance specifics, and many things can prevent an architecture living up to its theoretical specifications. It is also difficult for non-experts to make good use of this information. The most clear-cut thing you can do with the information is to use it as a means of explanation and sanity-checking. It would be concerning if the M1 was performing well on benchmarks with a microarchitecture that did not suggest that level of general performance. However, at every turn the M1 does, so the performance numbers are more believable for knowing the workings of the core.

On the Good and Bad of Cinebench

Cinebench is a real-world workload, in that it's just the time it takes for a program in active use to render a realistic scene. In many ways, this makes the benchmark fairly strong. Cinebench is also sustained, and optimized well for using a huge number of cores.
However, recall what makes a benchmark good: to correlate reliably with actual or perceived performance. Offline CPU ray tracing (which is very different to the realtime GPU-based ray tracing you see in games) is an extremely important workload for many people doing 3D rendering on the CPU, but is otherwise a very unusual workload in many regards. It has a tight rendering loop with very particular memory requirements, and it is almost perfectly parallel, to a degree that many workloads are not.
This would still be fine, if not for one major downside: it's only one workload. SPEC2017 contains a Blender run, which is conceptually very similar to Cinebench, but it is not just a Blender run. Unless the work you do is actually offline, CPU based rendering, which for the M1 it probably isn't, Cinebench is not a great general-purpose benchmark.
(Note that at the time of the Twitter argument, we only had Cinebench results for the A12X.)

On the Good and Bad of GFXBench

GFXBench, as far as I can tell, makes very little sense as a benchmark nowadays. Like I said for Geekbench's GPU compute benchmarks, these sort of tests are hugely dependent on APIs and OSs, to a degree much larger than for CPUs. Again, none of the GPU benchmarks strike me as particularly good, and most tests look... not great. This is bad for a benchmark, because they are trying to represent the performance you will see in games, which are clearly optimized to a different degree.
This is doubly true when Apple GPUs use a significantly different GPU architecture, Tile Based Deferred Rendering, which must be optimized for separately. EDIT: It has been pointed out that as a mobile-first benchmark, GFXBench is already properly optimized for tiled architectures.

On the Good and Bad of browser benchmarks

If you look at older phone reviews, you can see runs of the A13 with browser benchmarks.
Browser benchmark performance is hugely dependent on the browser, and to an extent even the OS. Browser benchmarks in general suck pretty bad, in that they don't capture the main slowness of browser activity. The only thing you can realistically conclude from these browser benchmarks is that browser performance on the M1, when using Safari, will probably be fine. They tell you very little about whether the chip itself is good.

On the Good and Bad of random application benchmarks

The Affinity Photo beta comes with a new benchmark, which the M1 does exceptionally well in. We also have a particularly cryptic comment from Blackmagicdesign, about DaVinci Resolve, that the “combination of M1, Metal processing and DaVinci Resolve 17.1 offers up to 5 times better performance”.
Generally speaking, you should be very wary of these sorts of benchmarks. To an extent, these benchmarks are built for the M1, and the generalizability is almost impossible to verify. There's almost no guarantee that Affinity Photo is testing more than a small microbenchmark.
This is the same for, eg., Intel's ‘real-world’ application benchmarks. Although it is correct that people care a lot about the responsiveness of Microsoft Word and such, a benchmark that runs a specific subroutine in Word (such as conversion to PDF) can easily be cherry-picked, and is not actually a relevant measure of the slowness felt when using Word!
This is a case of what are seemingly ‘real world’ benchmarks being much less reliable than synthetic ones!

On the Good and Bad of first-party benchmarks

Of course, then there are Apple's first-party benchmarks. This includes real applications (Final Cut Pro, Adobe Lightroom, Pixelmator Pro and Logic Pro) and various undisclosed benchmark suites (select industry-standard benchmarks, commercial applications, and open source applications).
I also measured Baldur's Gate 3 in a talk running at ~23-24 FPS at 1080 Ultra, at the segment starting 7:05. https://developer.apple.com/videos/play/tech-talks/10859
Generally speaking, companies don't just lie in benchmarks. I remember a similar response to NVIDIA's 30 series benchmarks. It turned out they didn't lie. They did, however, cherry-pick, specifically including benchmarks that most favoured the new cards. That's very likely the same here. Apple's numbers are very likely true and real, and what I measured from Baldur's Gate 3 will be too, but that's not to say other, relevant things won't be worse.
Again, recall what makes a benchmark good: to correlate reliably with actual or perceived performance. A biased benchmark might be both real-world and honest, but if it's also likely biased, it isn't a good benchmark.

On the Good and Bad of the Hardware Unboxed benchmark suite

This isn't about Hardware Unboxed per se, but it did arise from a disagreement I had, so I don't feel it's unfair to illustrate with the issues in Hardware Unboxed's benchmarking. Consider their 3600 review.
Here are the benchmarks they gave for the 3600, excluding the gaming benchmarks which I take no issue with.
3D rendering
  • Cinebench (MT+ST)
  • V-Ray Benchmark (MT)
  • Corona 1.3 Benchmark (MT)
  • Blender Open Data (MT)
Compression and decompression
  • WinRAR (MT)
  • 7Zip File Manager (MT)
  • 7Zip File Manager (MT)
  • Adobe Premiere Pro video encode (MT)
(NB: Initially I was going to talk about the 5900X review, which has a few more Adobe apps, as well as a crypto benchmark for whatever reason, but I was worried that people would get distracted with the idea that “of course he's running four rendering workloads, it's a 5900X”, rather than seeing that this is what happens every time.)
To have a lineup like this and then complain about the synthetic benchmarks for M1 and the A14 betrays a total misunderstanding about what benchmarking is. There are a total of three real workloads here, one of which is single threaded. Further, that one single threaded workload is one you'll never realistically run single threaded. As discussed, offline CPU rendering is an atypical and hard to generalize workload. Compression and decompression are also very specific sorts of benchmarks, though more readily generalizable. Video encoding is nice, but this still makes for a very thin picking.
Thus, this lineup does not characterize any realistic single-threaded workloads, nor does it characterize multi-core workloads that aren't massively parallel.
Contrast this to SPEC2017, which is a ‘synthetic benchmark’ of the sort Hardware Unboxed was criticizing. SPEC2017 contains a rendering benchmark (526.blender) and a compression benchmark (557.xz), and a video encode benchmark (525.x264), but it also contains a suite of other benchmarks, chosen specifically so that all the benchmarks measure different aspects of the architecture. It includes workloads like Perl, GCC, workloads that stress different aspects of memory, plus extremely branchy searches (eg. a chess engine), image manipulation routines, etc. Geekbench is worse, but as mentioned before, it still correlates with SPEC2017, by virtue of being a general benchmark that captures most aspects of the microarchitecture.
So then, when SPEC2017 contains your workloads, but also more, and with more balance, how can one realistically dismiss it so easily? And if Geekbench correlates with SPEC2017, then how can you dismiss that, at least given disaggregated metrics?

In conclusion

The bias against ‘synthetic benchmarks’ is understandable, but misplaced. Any benchmark is synthetic, by nature of abstracting speed to a number, and any benchmark is real world, by being a workload you might actually run. What really matters is knowing how each workload is represents your use-case (I care a lot more about compilation, for example), and knowing the issues with each benchmark (eg. Geekbench's bad score aggregation).
Skepticism is healthy, but skepticism is not about rejecting evidence, it is about finding out the truth. The goal is not to have the benchmarks which get labelled the most Real World™, but about genuinely understanding the performance characteristics of these devices—especially if you're a CPU reviewer. If you're a reviewer who dismisses Geekbench, but you haven't read the Geekbench PDF characterizing the workload, or your explanation stops at ‘it's short’, or ‘it's synthetic’, you can do better. The topics I've discussed here are things I would consider foundational, if you want to characterize a CPU's performance. Stretch goals would be to actually read the literature on SPEC, for example, or doing performance counter-aided analysis of the benchmarks you run.
Normally I do a reread before publishing something like this to clean it up, but I can't be bothered right now, so I hope this is good enough. If I've made glaring mistakes (I might've, I haven't done a second pass), please do point them out.
submitted by Veedrac to hardware

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